Measurement techniques and their field of application.
|Method||Heat flow regime||Temperature range||Uncertainty||Materials||Advantage||Disadvantage|
|Guarded hot plate||Steady state||80–800K||2%||Insulation materials, plastics, glasses||High accuracy||Long measurement time, large specimen size, low conductivity materials|
|Cylinder||Steady state||4–1000K||2%||Metals||Temperature range, simultaneous determination of electrical conductivity and See beck-coefficient possible||Long measurement time|
|Heat flow meter||Steady state||−100–200 °C||3–10%||Insulation materials, plastics, glasses, ceramics||Simple construction and operation||Measurement uncertainty, relative measurement|
|Comparative||Steady state||20–1300 °C||10–20%||Metals, ceramics, plastics, plastics||Simple construction and operation||Measurement uncertainty, relative measurement|
|Direct heating (Kohlrausch)||Steady state||400–3000K||2–10%||Metals||Simple and fast measurements, simultaneous determination of electrical conductivity||Only electrically conducting materials|
|Pipe method||Steady state||20–2500 °C||3–20%||Solids||Temperature range||Specimen preparation, long measurement time|
|Hot wire, hot strip||Transient||20–2000 °C||1–10%||Liquids, gases, low conductivity solids||Temperature range, fast, accuracy||Limited to low conductivity materials|
|Laser flash||Transient||−100–3000 °C||3–5%||Solids, liquids||Temperature range, most solids, liquids and powders, small specimen, fast, accuracy at high temperatures||Expensive, not for insulation materials|
|Photo thermal photoacoustic||Transient||30–1500K||Not sufficiently known||Solids, liquids, gases, thin films||Usable for thin films, liquids and gases||Nonstandard, knowledge about accuracy|
|3ω method||Transient||30–1000K||10–15%||Solid||Rapid response and accuracy||Need of thin dielectric layer Temperature range depend on substrate material|
|Transient thermos reflectance||Transient||30–1000K||10%||Solid, liquid||Non-contact Rapid response Usable for both thin and bulk material||Expensive High uncertainty|
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