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Table 2

Measurement techniques and their field of application.

Method Heat flow regime Temperature range Uncertainty Materials Advantage Disadvantage
Guarded hot plate Steady state 80–800K 2% Insulation materials, plastics, glasses High accuracy Long measurement time, large specimen size, low conductivity materials
Cylinder Steady state 4–1000K 2% Metals Temperature range, simultaneous determination of electrical conductivity and See beck-coefficient possible Long measurement time
Heat flow meter Steady state −100–200 °C 3–10% Insulation materials, plastics, glasses, ceramics Simple construction and operation Measurement uncertainty, relative measurement
Comparative Steady state 20–1300 °C 10–20% Metals, ceramics, plastics, plastics Simple construction and operation Measurement uncertainty, relative measurement
Direct heating (Kohlrausch) Steady state 400–3000K 2–10% Metals Simple and fast measurements, simultaneous determination of electrical conductivity Only electrically conducting materials
Pipe method Steady state 20–2500 °C 3–20% Solids Temperature range Specimen preparation, long measurement time
Hot wire, hot strip Transient 20–2000 °C 1–10% Liquids, gases, low conductivity solids Temperature range, fast, accuracy Limited to low conductivity materials
Laser flash Transient −100–3000 °C 3–5% Solids, liquids Temperature range, most solids, liquids and powders, small specimen, fast, accuracy at high temperatures Expensive, not for insulation materials
Photo thermal photoacoustic Transient 30–1500K Not sufficiently known Solids, liquids, gases, thin films Usable for thin films, liquids and gases Nonstandard, knowledge about accuracy
3ω method Transient 30–1000K 10–15% Solid Rapid response and accuracy Need of thin dielectric layer Temperature range depend on substrate material
Transient thermos reflectance Transient 30–1000K 10% Solid, liquid Non-contact Rapid response Usable for both thin and bulk material Expensive High uncertainty

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