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Table B4
Unit cell models ETCs of opencell metal foams.
Researcher  Unit cell  Correlation  Remarks 

Calmidi and Mahajan [33]  Twodimensional hexagonal array square nodes fibers are the edges of the hexagons one dimensional conduction : ligament to node size ratio representative unit cell: Divided into three layers in series formation and parallel law is would be applied for each separate layer 

Bhattacharyaet al. [13]  –Sixfold rotational symmetry –Circular cross sction representative unit cell: Divided into 5 layers in series and in each layer fluid and solid phases would be in parallel formation. R: radius of circular intersection 

Du Plessis and Fourie [110]  Representative unit cell was used to study hydrodynamic features of cellular structures.  Three joint square ducts each square oriented perpendicularly to the other two sections are required to exhibit maximum possible interconnectivity.  
Dulnev [111] 
L: outside diamension of the unit cell Also was used to examine Odelovski correlation 

Boomsma and Poulikakos [32]  The tetrakaidecahedron modeled with cylindrical ligaments and cubic nodes. d: dimensionless foam ligaments radius e: dimensionless cubic node length representative unit cell 

Schimierer and Razani [69]  Threedimensional geometric model of open celled Doucell foam Spherical nodes with the TetraK model ligament cross section is circular and the diameter is constant over its length k_{st}: thermal conductivity of 304 stainless steel A_{c}: cross sectional area L: length between thermocouple locations 5 thermocouple were used (1,2,3,4,5) 

Ozmat et al. [112]  NA  Structure of metal foam and dodecahedron having 12 pentagonshaped facets  
Krishnan et al. [113]  Body center cubic Face center cubic A15 arrangement ETC was calculated numerically by solving conduction heat transfer 
Unit cell geometries were obtained by substracting the cell cube from spheres at various lattice points Convex triangular ligaments cross sectional area Symmetric tetrahedral nodes 

Rayleigh models from [114]  Spherical particles arranged in simple cubic array embedded in a continuous matrix  
Rayleigh models from [114]  Consisting of parallel cylinders embedded in a continuous matrix Assuming z is the axis parallel to the fibers 

Percolation model [114]  Highconductivity particles are depicted as black. White is for lowconductivity particles  
Yang et al. [86]  An opencell Al foam modeled with a tetrakaidecahedron unit cell having a uniform thickness of square ligaments  
Yang et al. [11] 
Accounting for the variation of struts 'cross section: 
1/16th of a tetrakaidecahedron unit cell. Cubic nodes at ligaments' intersection. From experimental measurements on SEM images for Al foams: e = 0.3 and α = 1.5. α ≥ 1: node to ligament crosssectional area ratio Page 37 of 77 e ≥ 0: node thickness to strut length ratio h: ratio of ligament crosssectional area in the middle to end  
Haghighi and Kasiri [44]  Unit cell is discretized to five parallel layers in the y direction The ligaments of all quadrilateral faces are laid between two adjacent cells Each node at the fiber intersections is common between two cellsk is the summation of the effective thermal conductivity of each layer in series L: ligament length Θ: The inclination angle that defines the orientation of the hexagonal faces with respect to the rise direction l: Length of the sides of horizontal square faces e: Dimensionless spherical node diameter 

Talukar et al [115]  A Cartesian coordinate based finite volume method (FVM) has been used for solving the combined conductionradiation problem inside porous media. porosity is uniform within the porous matrix the thermophysical properties of the solid as well as the fluid (participating media) in the pores are constant over the range of temperature encountered in the simulation, 
These porous structures have been assumed to be regularly repeating in all the three directions The representative computational domain of the porous medium has been divided into a number of control volumes (CVs); each of which can be designated either as the solid or the fluid (void) control volume 

Yao et al. [82] 
a_{1}: geometrical parameter controlling crosssectional shape of ligament a_{2} geometrical parameter controlling crosssectional size of ligament L: ligament length 

Edouardo [45,46]  Consist of 12 cylindrical ligaments and 8 cubic nodes 2b: strut diameter and 2x: cubic node length 

Huu et al. [47]  NA    
Cubic cell lattice [48–50]  NA  Cell size is equal to cubic lattices  
Yu et al. [116]  Cubic unit cell model for porous carbon foam t: is the normalized thickness of the square bar 
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