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Table 1

Default parameters used in the Airfoil optimization problem.

Number of design variables 2065
Number of nodes 1136
Number of degrees of freedom 2152
Young Modulus E0 [MPa] 15
Minimum Young Modulus Emin [MPa] 0.015
Poisson ratio ν 0.3
Lamé first parameter λ0 [MPa] 8.65
Lamé second parameter μ0 [MPa] 5.77
Minimum Lamé first parameter λmin [MPa] 0.00865
Minimum Lamé second parameter μmin [MPa] 0.00577
Displacement constraint U0 [mm] − 21
Stress constraint σlim [MPa] 1
Chord length c [mm] 150
Abscissa force’s application point xappc 0.3
Ordinate force’s application point yapp [mm] 5
Intensity applied force Fext [N/mm] 7
Limits of Boundary Conditions xc [%] 35 − 65
Penalization factor p 3.0
Radius filter Rmin [mm] 6.0
Aggregation constant P 4

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